L10 SAS - Sociedade Agrícola da Sobreira Lda (PT)










Essential oils production  for  local market. Growth without irrigation and wild picking. Myrtus communis, Rosmarinus officinallis, Lavandula stoechas, Lavandula pendunculata, Lavandula viridis were selected. Specifically, the conservation fo Lavandula viridis is promoted, because of it  is  an endangered and rare species.


 Cereals and pasture improvement

 [2, 20]

Cereals (Triticale and Oat) grow without irrigation and improve nutrient content of soil. Minimum soil tillage has been carried out. Pasture is improved also by a  sustainable rotation grazing plan. 


 Fruits (Arbutus Unedo)


Arbutus unedo alone and interplanted with Ceratonia siliqua (carob) and Myrtus communisMost planted species have mycorrhizae.  

 Fruits in mix between olives


Punica granatum and Cydonia oblonga interplanted with already present olive trees. All planted species have mycorrhizae.  


[13, 12]

Interplanted cork and Cistus ladanifer already there with Phillyrea, Arbutus unedo and Retama sphaerocarpa. All planted species have mycorrhizae..  



Several nut trees were selected. Almond trees were interplanted with Arbutus unedo and Quercus suber. Carob trees were planted alone or interplanted with Quercus ilex and Aromatics (rosemary and myrtle). Two areas were dedicated to Pine and Pistacia lentiscus, respectively. Most planted species have mycorrhizae




 Test area


Non gmo seeds for pasture production were tested, as well as opuntia leaves as mulching material and nest (bed) technology as water aid. 


 Photo hunting


The idea is the creation of new observation points in the project areas.  



 Wildlife protection


The goal is to  grow back the natural vegetation/forest (by no human intervention), in which  wildlife will be protected (no hunting) and can breed. 




In these areas  native shrubs and trees species (Olea europaea (wild species),  Genista hirsuta, Juniperus spp , Phillyrea angustifolia /latifolia, Retama sphaerocarpa, Quercus suber/ faginea / coccifera /rotundifolia, Cytisus striatus, Rhamnus alaternus, Pistacia lentiscus)  were interplanted in a mix, in order to  protect soils and close the tree canopy again, and create the native forest (quercion fagineae alliance of evergreen oaks).


 Lake protection


Packaging of two exisisting lakes with with biodiversity promoting shrubs and trees (i.e. Phillyrea angustifolia, Crataegus monogyna, Salix salviifolia, Alnus gluinosa). To avoid erosion around ponds due to the wild animals, fences were installed, but left opening so that they can drink. Planting aquatic plants for filtration,soil fixation and food for fish.
New fish species (native) will be released in big lake and small photo observation post will be built. 


 Streambed protection


A strip of 2 rows of biodiversity promoting shrubs and trees (Morus alba, Crataegus monogyna) will be planted (or interplanted) on both sides of the small stream to guarantee longer water, less soil erosion.


 Biodiversity promoting plants


Increase plant biodiversity in protected areas to support insects, birds and mammals biodiversity.  



 Create employment


Optimization of working hours and organization.  

 Work with disabled people



 Provide social services


   N. Name  Comments   
   1 Seed collecting & native species    
   3 Existing vegetation

Partly done in some areas. landowner  create streets taking advantage of existing cistus to protect  from sun and wind.

  4 Mycorrhizae & plants

Plants inoculation with mycorrhizae was done in cork area.


 Full/half moon in all plants

   10 Soil ripping

 Only punctual interventions when indispensable. 

  11  Conservation Tillage

 Used for all areas, tilled and ploughed as little and as soft as possible. 

   14 Organic fertilizer

Self made worm compost food from the farm fresh food waste.

   23 Planting in mixes

 Used to implement biodiversity at all levels.

  26  Plant support Water aids study

The cocoons method and the opuntia leaves were  tested. 

   27 Watering/Drip irrigation

Watering  in beginning and drier months.

  28 Plant protector

Plastic and wire metal shelters were used.

   29 Plant assist

Seedling protectors, mulching and stones. 

   31 Grafting trees

Almond grafted with olestro in nursery.

   34 IPM Plague control No IPM to date. Bird, bats, insects as natural solution.  
   43 Planting on ridges The Pistacia sp. and Prunus dulcis have been planted in ridges, the arbutus unedo were planted half way and the Ceratonia siliqua and Quercus suber in furrows.   
   44 Firewood 10% rule  Whenever possible, dead wood is  left to encorage bioversity.  
   52 Root protection.    

Numbers of functions and measures correspond to the list reported in the DAM methodology, defining the operative DAM plan



Testing plant growth aid techniques to support seedlings establishment and growth

[Adaptation Measures: plant support & water aid 26 -  plant protectors 28 - plant assist 29]

Plant growth aid techniques were tested under harsh environmental conditions, with the purpose of improving seedling survival rates in the first years.

Cocoons were tested with different seedling species (Pict. 1-6) (for a detailed description of the field set up of cocoons see https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=sll6IO65vPg).

Other techniques were also tested which make use of nature-based solutions and materials available at L10 site to improve soil fertility and water retention in the rooting zone of seedlings.

The NEST (bed) technique has been previously tested for ecological landscape regeneration (Pict. 7-18). A consortium of producing (Quercus ilex / Arbutus unedo) and protective plants (Pistacia sp / Cystus proliferus / Myrtus communis/ Phillyrea angustifolia) is created. There is a geographic inclusion of the nest in the local ecosystem and the use of existing plants as creators of shade and windbreak. The nests are placed north of the existing plants in the landscape (Cistus ladanifer / Quercus ilex/ Lavandula stoechas/ Lavandula viridis). The most abundant species in the landscape and the fastest growing (Cistus ladanifer and Lavandula stoechas) are chosen for pruning to provide mulching material. Seedlings of plant producers (1) and protectors (3) are placed in a concave hole about 20cm deep (Pict. 8-10) that is filled with soil mixed with manure (Pict. 11), hole is covered with soil and more manure. Subsequently, mulch material and green material on the top is with a form of a nest (40-50 height) maintaining a concave shape (Pict. 12-14). Straw is placed around the nest to protect the exposed soil (16-18). Seeds (Vicia faba / Lupinus luteus / Pinus pinea / Cynara cardunculus/ Triticum aestivum) are also added (Pict. 15).

The performance of these two water aid was compared to other nature-based solutions, relying on material present in the study area like shredded Opuntia leaves in the soil, to increase fertility and water retention, and small branches of shrubs and trees, rocks and wood chips (mulch) to slow down soil erosion around root and evapotranspiration (Pict. 19-22).

Seedlings were also protected with plastic tubes (Pict. 23) and some with wire metal shelters named Protector Cactus (Pic. 24-27). 



Functions to produce bioproducts and sustain biodiversity

Most of the economic functions selected by Herdade da Sobreira Lda. L10, will allow a diversified income while supporting biodiversity improvement. And in all functions the landowner will favor native and diverse planting through regenerative techniques, caring for the water cycles and the soil growth.

In all cases there are main productive species which are interplanted with other species of different forest strata (small bushes, taller bushes, trees, etc.) to increase biodiversity, plant cover and landscape resilience while promoting the water retention in the soil and increasing humidity.

Aromatics [1]

The implemented area (Pict. 1) was planted with rosemary, lavender, thyme and myrtle (Pict. 2-3) for the extraction of essential oil. Local materials were used as mulching (Pict. 4-5). Planting aromatics is useful to increase the pollination ecoservice providing additional flowering materials throughout the seasons.


Fruits [7]

Different areas for fruit production were set in the L10 site (Arbutus unedo Pict 1; Cydonia oblonga + Punica granatum Pict. 2). All the seedlings were inoculated with mycorrhizae (Pict. 3-6) to improve their resistance to drought, sustained with water aids (Arbutus unedo in cocoons Pict. 7-8) and protected with plastic shelters (Pict. 9). In some cases wildlife such as wild boars required additional work (wild boar damage, Pict. 10-11). In this case cactus technique might be advisable to protect seedlings better than plastic.


Nuts [15]

Almond trees were interplanted with Arbutus unedo and Quercus suber (Pict. 1). Carob trees alone or interplanted with Quercus ilex, Rosemary and Myrtle (Pict. 2-3). Two areas were dedicated to pine (Pict. 4) and Pistacia lentiscus (Pict. 5). Different kind of supports to seedlings growth to improve their survival rates are used and tested: cocoons (Pict. 6, Prunus dulcis in cocoon), cactus protector (Pict. 7) and plastic shelter (pict. 8) sometimes in combination between them (Pict. 9-10). Additionally, the landowner created a full-moon (Pict. 11) around the seedling to improve water retention.

Wildlife in these areas is more active and sometimes damages plantations despite the protective measures that have been applied (Pict. 12-14). All these activities were also conducted thanks to the work of volunteers, promoting social inclusion and awareness (Pict. 15-16).


Cork [13]

Cork oaks, interplanted with Arbutus unedo and other shrubs (Pict. 1), are used for the production of natural fibers. All planted species (Pict. 2-4) have been inoculated with mycorrhizae (Pict. 5). Plastic shelters (Pict. 6-7) and cocoons (Pict. 8-9) were used to sustain seedlings' initial growth.


Test area [32]

Landowner tested non-GMO seeds for pasture improvement (Pict. 1) and the nest technology (bed) with different plants (Pict. 2). An open day in the test area was conducted with a field training activity ended with nest creation (Pict. 3-6).