Spontaneous herbs and aromatics (Rosmary, lavander, asparagus, fennel) will be collected and or interplanted with pre-existing vegetation. Products will be used for village kitchen and/or sold in local market.

   Places for wildlife feeding
 [2 and 38]

Three small fenced patches are used for wildlife feeding. A mix of  legumes (lupines, trifolium) and cereals is used.


Some areas will be dedicated to grazing (see Grazing rights).


 Nuts new plantation + fruits

 [7 and 15]
On the north slope, a new plantation of almond and carob trees will be done. Nuts and fruits will be used for village kitchen and sold to local market.  

 Nuts interplanting+ fruits

 [7 and 15]

 On the south slope, common quince, fig, walnut and almond trees will be interplanted to the existing vegetation and where possible inoculated for the production of edible mushrooms. Nuts, fruits and mushrooms will be used for village kitchen and sold to local market.


 Nuts replace eucalyptus


The idea is gradually replacing Eucalyptus (used for biomass production) with almond and carob tree on the long run, used for self-sufficiency (village kitchen) and sold to local market.




This function focus on best practices for managing the land in order to potentiate the presence of commercially viable mushrooms (no-till, soil cover, reforestation, etc). Every year the Silarca Mushroom Festival takes place in Cabeça Gorda (SILARCA Festival do Cogumelo).


 Natural fibers


Cork oak interplanted in the areas dedicated to restoration of native forest is used for the production of natural fibers.


 As part of food garden.


 Timber, firewood and biomass


This is a coppice system of eucalyptus for the production of timber firewood and biomass. Timber is sold every 5 years.


 Pasture improvement


Pasture improvement is carried out throughout other functions using a mix of grasses and legumes.




 Bee keeping rights


Apiaries are in place, rights paid in honey used for village kitchen.  

 Food garden for self-sufficiency


Fruits (i.e. Japanese and European plum, apricot, peach, pear) vegetables (selected year-by-year depending on market), berries (i.e. raspberry, red currant, blueberries) and aromatics (i.e. rosemary, thyme, sage) are planted as a food forest-like system. Interplanting is used to make the most use of the space. The idea is to produce everything is needed to village kitchen to become self-supporting, starting a circular economy.

   Hiking trails
Some trails are already present, they will be only repaired and the trail marks added.  
   MTB trails

 Test Area


In these three small areas unusual fruits and nuts species, as well as species adapted to dry climate conditions were tested. All these species could be used in reforestation interventions. In addition, mushroom inoculation is carried out. Retama sphaerocarpa and tubex shelters are used as nurse shrub and plant protector, respectively.




 Erosion control


Bare soil is firstly cover with grass+legumes mix.  Trees better adaptive to drought and climate change, such as kermes oak and olive var. sylvestris, are interplanted between existing vegetation. Ulex europaeus is used as nurse shrubs.


 Animal Feeding places

Several patches throughout some functions represent a wildlife feeding places.   

 Insect shelter


Insect hotels will be installed in the context of environmental education activities with schools.  
   Native forest

These areas focus on the reforestation of native forest. Two kind of approaches are used to achieve this goal: i) interplanting trees (arbutus unedo, pinus pinea, quecus spp.) and shrubs (Cytisus striatus, Genista hirsuta, Phillyrea angustifolia, Pistacia lentiscus, Retama sphaerocarpa) to imitate natural succession and speed this up. ii) creating tree clusters (Quercus suber, Ceratonia siliqua, arbutus unedo, Pistacia lentiscus, Myrtus communis, Lavandula viridis, Lavandula stoechas, Rosmarinus officinalis), a kind of biodiversity hotspots that act as core of accretion.
Plants were selected to improve biodiversity and for natural fiber production (cork oak).


 Lake protection


Packaging of two existing lakes with shrubs (common hawthorn and Salix salviifolia). To avoid erosion around ponds due to the wild animals, fences were installed, but left opening so that they can drink Planting aquatic plants for filtration.


 Streambed protection


Shrubs (common hawthorn, myrtle, mock privet) and trees (arbutus, common ash, elder) are placed around stream where this is not covered with vegetation and shadow. Biodiversity promoting species were selected.


 Ecological Corridor

The recovery of vegetation along the stream and the selection of plants that support biodiversity create a wildlife refuge as well as a buffer zones.  

 Biodiversity promoting plants

Increase plant biodiversity in protected areas to support insects, birds and mammals biodiversity.  


   Create employment


Several implemented functions will require hiring, namely a full-time employee and several seasonal employees according to the needs.

   Work with disabled people

No specific action will be put in place. it's a park, it happens to work with disable people.


 Provide social services

The food garden provides products for social canteen.  
   N. Name  Comments   
  3  Existing vegetation

Not yet. They'll use it in place of harrowing.
Transplantation of small trees, using dead and live eucalyptus trunks to build stork nests and poles, chipping other  woody vegetation to improve organic matter.

   Mycorrhizae & plants

Mycorrhizae used to produce edible mushrooms  to use in social kitchen and sold during the Silarca Mushroom Festival.


Common practice. Half-moons were done on slops and "full moons" in the flatter areas.

  13   Capture & Store Water

Existing ponds are implemented in order to increase the amount of available water for wildlife throughout the year and increase their quality. 

  15   Pasture improvement

Improving pasture resilience by introducing additional species (legumes).

  17   Legumes

They were used in mix with grasses to cover soil and improve pastures.

  19   Nurse shrubs

Retama sphaerocarpa and Ulex europaeus are used as nurse shrubs.

  22   Interplanting

Such techniques is used to make the most use of the space.

  23   Planting in mixes

Used to implement biodiversity at all levels.

  26   Plant support Water aids study

The cocoons method was tested but did not produce optimal results on this kind of soil (thin, clayey and rich in rock fragments).

  28   Plant protectors

Tubex protectors are used.

  29   Plant assist

Cocoons, compost, straw mulch and stone mulch. 

  30   Fencing installation

Wildlife feeding places, food garden and ponds are fenced.

  38   Ecoservices

The implementing of existing trails will bring further  values and incomes.


Numbers of functions and measures correspond to the list reported in the DAM methodology, defining the operative DAM plan



Testing plant growth aid techniques to support seedlings establishment and growth

[Adaptation Measures: plant support & water aid 26 -  plant protectors 28 - plant assist 29]

In municipality of CABEÇA GORDA water aids to improve the seedling survival rates in the first years after planting under harsh environmental conditions, were tested. Specifically, cocoons were installed (Pict. 1-2) and tested but did not produce optimal results due to the physical features of such soils (thin, clayey and rich in rock fragments).

A low cost nature-based solutions relying on material present in the study area like rock (Pict. 3-4) was used to improve the soil water retention. Other seedlings were traditionally planted by adding compost in the hole planting to improve organic carbon content and water retention too (Pict. 5-9). 



Pasture improvement

[Economic function: 20]

Pasture improvement is carried out in all project plots using a mix of grasses and legumes to increase soil organic carbon content, reduce soil erosion by keeping the soil surface covered and providing food for pollinators. Picture 1 and 2 show two sequential stages of pasture growth.